List of Endangered Old World Monkeys

There are 122 species of old world monkeys, the monkeys native to Asia and Africa. Of these, the 41 monkey species in the lists below are classified as endangered.

For some types of monkeys almost all species are endangered.

In Africa, red colobus monkeys are particularly in trouble, with five out of the seven species there endangered.

Asia's endangered monkeys include one-third of the macaque species, all three species of the douc langurs and all four species of snub-nosed monkeys.

The genus most heavily represented on the lists, though, is Trachypithecus. These are the langurs, lutungs and leaf-monkeys of southern Asia, where nine of the 16 species are endangered.

Determinations of whether monkeys are endangered come from the World Conservation Union (IUCN), which maintains the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. The organization is an internationally recognized authority on the status of species around the world.

The Red List uses categories to indicate how severely endangered an animal species is. Monkeys get placed into categories of "Critically Endangered" and "Endangered" based on how rapidly their population has declined, how small an area they now occupy, how many individuals remain, or the likelihood they'll soon become extinct.

Besides the monkeys listed here, the Red List places in the "Vulnerable" category another 31 old world species which have declined in number, but less drastically than the endangered monkeys. The three categories together make up the "Threatened" species. In total, 72 species (59 percent) of old world monkeys are threatened.

Critically Endangered Monkeys in Asia and Africa

The dozen critically endangered species listed below are the old world monkeys that now live closest to the brink of becoming extinct in the wild. They have either:

  • a population decline of at least 80 percent within ten years or three generations,
  • fragmented or unstable populations over an area of less than 100 square kilometres (39 square miles),
  • numbers totalling less than 50 mature individuals, or
  • at least a 50 percent probability of becoming extinct in the wild within ten years or three generations.
List of the 12 critically endangered old world monkeys.
Common Name Scientific Name Countries
Dryad Monkey Cercopithecus dryas Democratic Republic of the Congo
Celebes Crested Macaque Macaca nigra Indonesia
Pagai Island Macaque Macaca pagensis Indonesia
Sarawak Surili Presbytis chrysomelas Indonesia, Malaysia
Pennant's Red Colobus Procolobus pennantii Congo, Equatorial Guinea, Nigeria
Preuss's Red Colobus Procolobus preussi Cameroon, Nigeria
Grey-shanked Douc Langur Pygathrix cinerea Vietnam
Tonkin Snub-nosed Monkey Rhinopithecus avunculus Vietnam
Kipunji Rungwecebus kipunji Tanzania
Pig-tailed Langur Simias concolor Indonesia
Delacour's Langur Trachypithecus delacouri Vietnam
White-headed Langur Trachypithecus poliocephalus China, Vietnam

Endangered Monkeys in Asia and Africa

Endangered monkeys are not as bad off as those that are critically endangered, but they still have come alarmingly close to extinction. These old world monkeys have either:

  • a population decline of at least 50 percent within ten years or three generations,
  • fragmented or unstable populations over an area of less than 5000 square kilometres (1930 square miles),
  • numbers totalling less than 250 mature individuals, or
  • at least a 20 percent probability of becoming extinct in the wild within 20 years or five generations.
List of the 29 endangered old world monkeys.
Common Name Scientific Name Countries
Tana River Crested Mangabey Cercocebus galeritus Kenya
Sanje Mangabey Cercocebus sanjei Tanzania
Preuss’s Monkey Cercopithecus preussi Cameroon, Equatorial Guinea, Nigeria
Moor Macaque Macaca maura Indonesia
Arunachal Macaque Macaca munzala Bhutan, China, India
Lion-tailed Macaque Macaca silenus India
Toque Macaque Macaca sinica Sri Lanka
Barbary Macaque Macaca sylvanus Algeria, Morocco (introduced to Gibraltar)
Drill Mandrillus leucophaeus Cameroon, Equatorial Guinea, Nigeria
Proboscis Monkey Nasalis larvatus Brunei, Indonesia, Malaysia
Javan Surili Presbytis comata Indonesia
Sumatran Surili Presbytis melalophos Indonesia
Mentawai Langur Presbytis potenziani Indonesia
West African Red Colobus Procolobus badius Côte d'Ivoire, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Liberia, Senegal, Sierra Leone
Udzungwa Red Colobus Procolobus gordonorum Tanzania
Zanzibar Red Colobus Procolobus kirkii Tanzania
Red-shanked Douc Langur Pygathrix nemaeus Cambodia, Laos, Vietnam
Black-shanked Douc Langur Pygathrix nigripes Cambodia, Vietnam
Black Snub-nosed Monkey Rhinopithecus bieti China
Grey Snub-nosed Monkey Rhinopithecus brelichi China
Golden Snub-nosed Monkey Rhinopithecus roxellana China
Kashmir Gray Langur Semnopithecus ajax Nepal
François’s Langur Trachypithecus francoisi China, Vietnam
Gee’s Golden Langur Trachypithecus geei Bhutan, India
Indochinese Lutung Trachypithecus germaini Cambodia, Laos, Myanmar, Thailand, Vietnam
Hatinh Langur Trachypithecus hatinhensis Laos, Vietnam
Phayre’s Leaf-monkey Trachypithecus phayrei Bangladesh, China, India, Myanmar, Thailand, Vietnam
Shortridge’s Langur Trachypithecus shortridgei China, Myanmar
Purple-faced Langur Trachypithecus vetulus Sri Lanka
Reference

IUCN. 2010. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2010.2.

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